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  • Genes hold secret to survival of Antarctic 'antifreeze fish'

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      View an audio slideshow about the Antarctic notothenioid fish that survive temperatures that would turn most fish to ice.

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      Dissostichus mawsoni, the Antarctic toothfish, is the largest of the notothenioid fish to inhabit the Southern Ocean.

      Photo by Chris Cheng and Paul Cziko

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      Antarctic icefish have no hemoglobin, an adaptation to the oxygen-rich waters of the Southern Ocean.

      Photo by Uwe Kils

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      Chi-Hing "Christina" Cheng has spent two decades studying the Antarctic notothenioids, which make up more than 90 percent of the biomass of the Southern Ocean.

      Photo courtesy of Chris Cheng

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      Underwater ice is the habitat that best suits Trematomus hansoni.

      Photo by Chris Cheng and Kevin Hoefling

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