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  • Spinal cord gives bio-bots walking rhythm

    A microscope image of a bio-bot.

    Bio-bots are propelled by a ring of muscle on a hydrogel skeleton. Illinois researchers have been the first to innervate them with rat spinal cord segments, giving the “spinobots” a natural walking rhythm.

    Image courtesy of Collin Kaufman


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  • Editor’s notes: To reach Martha Gillette, call 217-244-1355; email To reach Collin Kaufman, email

    The paper “Emergence of functional neuromuscular junctions in an engineered, multicellular spinal cord-muscle bioactuator” is available online. DOI: 10.1063/1.5121440