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  • By listening, scientists learn how a protein folds

    Portrait of researchers in a laboratory. They are sitting in front of two computer monitors displaying data and visualizations of their experiments.

    Composer and software developer Carla Scaletti and chemistry professor Martin Gruebele used sound to investigate hydrogen-bond dynamics during the protein-folding process.

    Photo by Fred Zwicky


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  • Editor’s notes:  

    To reach Martin Gruebele, email  

    To reach Carla Scaletti, email
    The paper “Hydrogen bonding heterogeneity correlates with protein folding transition state passage time as revealed by data sonification” is available online or from  

    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2319094121